Green Building Principles in Construction

What are the Green Building Principles in Construction?

The term green building is first used in the 70s and 80s when oil prices are rises around the globe. The term comes in various ways and helps us to understand what is energy efficiency, conservation, and appropriate use of natural resources.

Currently, the green building concept is very growing. The sustainable building technique saves a lot of time and money. The owner and builder both should understand green building technology.

These are the principles of eco-friendly construction.


Size is the most deciding factor of any sustainable structure. Your house must fulfill your needs neither less nor more. According to research, simple shapes are the best way to choose. As every building loses a certain amount of energy due to the ratio of exterior surface which is proportional to the volume. Simply, the more the simple shape of the building, the lesser transmit heat into the surroundings.


It is a parameter to determine whether the building is green or not. The building or house which needs to demolish within few years is not sustainable. And the building that loses of groundwater or require extra resources is not eco-friendly.

How to measure the longevity of the House?

The easy way to measure is moisture control of the building. Water can damage the building quickly. Water damages the building more in many ways like peeling of paint, rotting, and mold. It has been found that the tightly built houses don’t dry quickly if the roof or wall gets wet which is suitable for mold to grow.

The climate of the location also plays a vital role in longevity. The vapor barrier helps in the colder atmosphere as it helps to prevent the formation of cavities. So, architects have to design according to factors that reduce the life of the building.

Energy Efficiency of Building

The idea behind the green building is to use energy efficiently. Insulation is very important to achieve high energy efficiency. The air leakage in the building minimizes energy efficiency. The design should be perfect as there are no gaps for air penetration.

It is found that the contractor only looks at small places where insulation is not sufficient like wires and pipes. But it is also important to check at larger places. The air gaps can occur at any place like behind showers, bathtubs, soffits, etc. These places should be closed properly by barrier materials like plywood, drywall, etc.

Minimize the Waste

The purpose of sustainability is to reduce the generation of waste material. This reduction improves the quality of construction. There are various ways to do this. For example, coordinate your plumber and house framer, which saves a lot of material.

Using recycling material is also helps to reduce wastage. The cardboard and metal can be scraps and recycled.

Indoor Air Quality

The eco-friendly house has proper ventilation and natural lighting. You can find the ventilation rate of your house by contacting an HVAC contractor. Think about indoor air pollutants. They are volatile organic compounds of paints, vehicles, carbon monoxide from improper IC engine vehicles, formaldehyde from carpets, and also from particle boards. It is also an enormous amount of moisture.

Use the Green Products

To use the material that has a harmful impact on the environment is equivalent to use a green products in the building. For example, bamboo is good option for wooden flooring as it has less impact on the environment. Materials like fly ash, concrete made from coal-burning, etc. are used instead of Portland cement.

Water Conservation

Sufficient water resource is require for any building. The groundwater level decides that the structure will build or not at that location. If the groundwater is not distributed properly, has a direct impact on the environment. For that, innovative water management requires for better future.

Non-Conventional Curing Methods in Concrete Construction

Cement is the main ingredient of the concrete which binds all the ingredients in the concrete. It reacts with water and binds all the ingredients. When cement mix with the water, it generates heat which is known as the heat of hydration. It is because of the high quantity of Alite and tri–Calcium Aluminate in Cement. This is also affected by water contain, fineness, and curing temperature. The produced heat does not affect the hardening of concrete. After initial hardening, the hydration affects concrete and if heat is not regulated, it will reduce the strength of the concrete. Water is most important for concrete to control the hydration in the hardening process. Curing is water provided for hydration.

There are various conventional and non-conventional curing methods used to cure the concrete. The non-conventional methods are not very popular as they required a special atmosphere and are relatively expensive. This is the information about non-conventional curing methods.

Non-Conventional Curing Methods

1. Curing by Immersion Method

This is the most acceptable and one of the best water curing methods. The concrete product is poured in the curing tank. This fulfills the moisture requirement of the product. This is used for pre-cast concrete tiles, pavers, etc. are placed in the curing tank for a certain time period.

Sometimes this method is not applicable when the concrete is a test specimen or is in small pre-cast units. There are more labors required for handling.

2. Electrical Curing

In Electrical Curing, the alternating current is passed through concrete between two electrodes. These electrodes are buried or on the surface of the concrete. Proper care is required so the moisture does not evaporate from the concrete and make it dry.

This casting process is performed during work hours and accelerated curing takes place after working hours.

Electric curing is widely used in cold climate regions. This is not an economic option to use. There are skilled workers and continuous monitoring is required.

3. Infra-red Radiation Concrete Curing

The Infrared radiation increases the temperature of concrete so it can get immediate strength. This method is widely used for curing hollow concrete products like hollow concrete blocks. The normal operating temperature is maintained at about 90 o C.

The strength can be gained in a short time compared to steam curing. Initial high temperature has not decreased the strength like steam curing at normal pressure.

Infrared radiation is cold regions like Russia.


These non-conventional techniques are only used in special cases as they require special attention and care. The concrete construction does not get the required strength if the curing is done properly. The improper or inadequate curing gives lower strength to concrete and decreases the performance. Ensure the proper curing of the concrete for sufficient time.

Hollow Concrete Blocks – All About It

House is a basic need of a person. It is one of the three basic requirements of food and cloth. In the early times, the house is made with stone and mud. Then people use burnt clay brick to construct a structure. Now with the technological advancement and need for a cheaper and fast technique for the construction, the concrete blocks are used.

The concrete blocks are divided into types, solid concrete block, and hollow concrete block. In this article, we will discuss hollow concrete blocks, its advantage and disadvantage, properties, and types.

Start with what is concrete blocks?

The concrete blocks are the rectangular concrete blocks available in solid or hollow. These concrete blocks come in modular sizes and it is different in various countries.

  1. Solid Concrete Blocks
  2. Hollow Concrete Blocks

Start with Solid Concrete Blocks

The solid concrete blocks are made from aggregate, Portland cement, and sand. The blocks have solid material not less than 75 percent of total weight calculated from overall dimensions. These blocks are heavy in weight and provide excellent stability to the structure and used for large masonry work. It is used in load-bearing and non-load bearing walls. It is available in various sizes compared to other conventional bricks.

Hollow Concrete Blocks

It is the standard size rectangular hollow blocks made of cast concrete having a high or low density. Portland cement and aggregate, fine gravel, and sand are used as raw material in high density. Industrial waste like fly ash or bottom ash used as a raw material in low-density blocks. It is also known as cinder blocks/breeze blocks in various places.

As per the Indian Standard – IS 2185 (Part-1) 2005 the hollow concrete blocks have one or more large holes or cavities which are a pass-through block or not pass through the block. These blocks have solid material between 50 to 75 percent of the total volume of the block. The holes or cavities reduces the total cross-sectional area of the block.

The hollow blocks are widely used in masonry as it reduces the construction time and require less cement, steel which saves money. The weight of the construction is minimized and enhance the noise and thermal insulation. The electrical conduit, water, and soil pipes are easily accommodated.

Hollow concrete blocks available in which sizes?

The standard hollow concrete blocks are available in full and half size. The full-size blocks are rectangular and have two cores. The half-size blocks are cubical and have one core.

Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm

Height: 200 or 100 mm

Width: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 mm

Types of Concrete Blocks

Hollow Concrete Block (Open and Closed Cavity)

The hollow blocks are divided into below categories

Grade A

This type of block is used in a load-bearing unit and has a minimum block density of 1500 kg/m 3 . These blocks are made with average compressive strengths of 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, 8.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 N/mm 2 at 28 days.

Grade B

The Grade-B type blocks are also used as load-bearing units and have block density between 1100 kg/m 3 and 1500 kg/m 3 . These types of blocks are made for a minimum average compressive strength of 3.5 and 5 N/mm 2 at 28 days.

Solid Concrete Blocks

Grade C

The solid concrete blocks are used as load-bearing units and have a minimum block density of 1800 kg/m 3 . The grade C blocks are made at a minimum average compressive strength of 4 and 5 N/mm 2 .

Physical Properties of the Hollow Concrete Blocks

Moisture Movement: Not more than 0.09 %

Water Absorption: Not more than 10 %

Drying Shrinkage: Not more than 0.06 %

Compressive Strength

For Grade A: 3.5 to 15 N/mm 2

For Grade B: 3.5 to 5 N/mm 2


For Grade A: 1500 kg/m 3

For Grade B: 1100 kg/m 3 to 1500 kg/m 3

Where are the hollow concrete blocks used?

Interior load-bearing walls, Exterior load-bearing walls, curtain walls, fireproofing, partition wall and panel walls, backing from brick, stone, and other facing, piers, column and retaining walls, boundary fences, etc.

What are the advantages of Hollow Concrete Block Masonry?

The hollow concrete block masonry is an easy and fast construction practice compared to others.

These blocks reduce the construction cost as it has a large size which reduces the number of joints

These blocks are durable and have low maintenance

Semi-skill or unskilled labor can work with this masonry practice

The reinforcing of hollow block masonry is possible as it doesn’t require additional formwork or construction machinery

Hollow concrete block masonry is highly durable as it is compacted by high pressure and vibration.

The hollow concrete blocks are lightweight reduces the weight of the structure and requires less percentage of steel of R.C.C.

These blocks have a rough texture which provides excellent bonding between cement mortar and concrete blocks

The voids and cores can fill with steel bars and concrete to achieve seismic resistance

These hollow concrete blocks have excellent insulating properties against sound, heat, and dampness

The blocks have excellent fire resistance

What are the disadvantages of Hollow Concrete Block?

The cost of these blocks is higher than the conventional bricks

The structure built with hollow blocks without any interior reinforcement may damage in earthquake

What are the different types of Hollow Concrete Blocks?

The hollow concrete blocks are divided into various types according to its shape, need, and design

1. Concrete Stretcher Blocks

These hollow blocks are widely used in construction. The blocks are used to join the corner of masonry units. These blocks are placed with their length parallel to the face of the wall.

2. Lintel Blocks

The lintel blocks are called channeled blocks or beam blocks. This is a U-shaped concrete masonry unit. The blocks have a deep groove with a length of the block. After placing the blocks this groove-filled with concrete with reinforcement. These blocks are used at top of the portion of doors and windows as it transfers the load comes from the top.

3. Partition Concrete Blocks

These blocks are ideal for partition wall construction. The hollow part of the blocks is divided into two or three components. The height of the partition block is larger than its breadth.

4. Concrete Pillar Blocks

These blocks are also known as double corner block as both of its corners are plain. The blocks used when two ends of the corner are visible. As of its name, it is widely used in pillars or piers

5. Concrete Corner Blocks

These blocks are used in corners of masonry at the end of the window or at the door opening. One corner of the block is plain and the other is stretcher design. The blocks are arranged that the plane end of the block is at the outside and another end is locked with a stretcher block.

6. Jamb Concrete Blocks

This block is used when the elaborated window opening in the wall. It is connected to the stretcher and corner of the block. These blocks provide space for the casing member of the window.

7. Bullnose Concrete Blocks

These bullnose concrete blocks are similar to corner blocks in structure and function. When the round edges are required these blocks are used.

8. Frogged Brick Blocks

Like the frogged brick these frogged brick blocks have a frog on the top with a header and stretcher. This frog helps the blocks to hold mortar and develop a strong bond with the top lying block.

In conclusion, the concrete blocks are efficient building material than conventional bricks. The blocks increase construction speed and minimize construction costs. The price of the hollow blocks are cheap and it is available in various shape and size.

How the concrete is cured by steam at atmospheric pressure?

Curing of brick or block is accelerating the hydration of cement with control of temperature and moisture movement form and into the concrete. For better quality concrete the mix of concrete and appropriate curing at the beginning of hardening. We can get quality of concrete as required by using concrete ingredients and by different curing methods.

The curing is used to prevent the loss of moisture from the concrete and keep it saturated or make it saturated as possible till the water-filled space in fresh-made cement product fills with.

Now, What is Steam Curing?

In the curing, the product is a cure at water vapor at atmospheric or high pressure. The curing is used when the strength is required in beginning and heat is required for hydration in cold weather. The main reason for using steam in curing of concrete for high early strength. The steam curing is applied at very high pressure or at atmospheric pressure. Here we will discuss concrete steam curing at atmospheric pressure.

What is the difference between Steam Curing at High Pressure and Normal Pressure?

The steam temperature is below 100 degrees Celsius is used for curing the concrete at atmospheric pressure. As the steam will be converted into water, it is also called the hot water curing and this process is done in an open atmosphere. The high-pressure concrete curing is performed in a closed chamber with high pressure about 80 to 170 psi and a high temperature of about 325 o F to 375 o F. The process is called Autoclaving.

Cycle of the Steam Curing

The steam curing has various phases and each phase has a different time frame that has to set.

First is an Initial delay prior to steaming

In this phase, the concrete is held at ambient temperature for about 180 minutes.

Increasing the Temperature

The curing temperature is increased to 60 degree Celsius for about 120 minutes

Hold at Maximum Temperature

The concrete is held at a maximum temperature about 70 degree Celsius for 120 minutes

Lower the Temperature

The concrete is cool down for 120 minutes

Now understand these processes in detail.

Steam curing is used to reduce heat loss and moisture. The tarpaulins are used to make the enclosed space.

Steam is applied for at least 3 hours after to get hardened the concrete. The 3 to 5 hours prior to steaming get the maximum strength.

The process is carried about by precast concrete elements which are specially prestressed concrete sleepers that are used in Indian Railway.

The bridges are built with precast prestressed girders and these girders are steam cured to increase the speed of construction.

It is hard to steam cure concrete at the site is not easy and at some sites, it is made by a steam jacket with tarpaulin or thick polyethylene sheets. The onsite steam curing is not suggested as the required strength is not achieved.

In the curing, the steam temperature is enclosed at 60 degrees Celsius until to reach the required strength. The desired strength will not be achieved if the temperature is raised from 60 to 70 degrees Celsius. The steam curing above 70 degrees Celsius is not suggested as it may damage the product. The internal temperature should not exceed to 70 degree Celsius and if so, there is expansion inside the concrete which reduce the overall strength.

In the steam curing the type of cement used, time and temperature are very important.

The use of excess heat and cooling avoid for preventing the damage of the volume changes. The temperature should not increase or decrease more than 22 to 33 degrees Celsius per hour according to the size and shape of concrete.

The curing temperature inside should maintain until it reaches to require strength. The curing time depends on the concrete and steam temperature.

How to calculate the Number of Concrete Blocks in the Wall?

There are various methods for calculating the number of blocks in the wall. In this article, we will see two simple methods for calculating the number of blocks used in the wall.

  1. Surface Area Method
  2. Volume Method

How to calculate the number of Blocks by Surface Area Method?

  1. The surface area of the wall
  2. Surface area of the standard concrete block
  3. The surface area of openings in the wall

Step 1

The Length & Height of the Wal

Take as Length of the wall = 10 feet

The height of the wall = 10 feet

Step 2

Now calculate the surface area of the wall

Surface Area = Length x Height

Surface Area of the wall = 10 x 10 = 100 sq. feet.

Step 3

Now calculate the Surface Area of Openings

The openings like a door, windows, etc.

Let the wall has window 3’ x 3’

Surface area of the window = 3 x 3 = 9 sq. ft

Step 4

Now subtract the openings from the surface area of the Wall

Final surface area = 100-9= 91 sq. feet

Step 5

Now calculate the surface area of concrete block with mortar

The standard block is 16” x 8” x 8” and mortar allowance is 1”

Surface area of block with mortar = (16+1) x (8+1) = 153 inch 2

153/12 x 12 = 1.0625 sq. ft

Step 6

Now divide the total surface area of the wall by the surface area of one block

Number of blocks= surface area of Wall/Surface area of the block


Now consider 5% wastage of concrete blocks

Total number of blocks required = 86 + (86 x 5/100) = 86 + 4 = 90

Now calculate by Volume Method

  1. The volume of the wall
  2. Volume of the standard concrete block
  3. The volume of the openings in the wall

Step 1

First determine the Width, Height, and Thickness of the Wall

Width of the wall = 10 feet

Height of the wall = 10 feet

Thickness of the wall = 8” = 0.67 feet. (Thickness of wall is the same as the thickness of one concrete block)

Step 2

Now the calculate the volume of the wall

Volume = Width x Height x Thickness

Volume of the wall = 10 x 10 x 0.67 = 67 cubic feet

Step 3

The volume of the Openings

The openings like a door, windows, etc.,

Now calculate the volume of the window = 3 x 3 x 0.67 = 6 cubic feet

Step 4

Subtract the volume of the Openings from Volume of Walls

Final Volume of wall = 67 – 6 = 61 cubic feet

Step 5

Now calculate the volume of the concrete block with the Mortar allowance

The concrete block is 16” x 8” x 8” and mortar allowance is 1”

The volume of one block with mortar = (16+1) x (8+1) x 8 = 1224 inch 3 (Mortar is applied on upper and one side of every block)

1224/12 x 12 x 12 = 0.70 cubic feet

Step 6

Divide the total volume of a wall by volume of one block

Number of blocks = Volume of Wall/ Volume of Block

61/0.70 = 86

Now consider 5% wastage of concrete blocks

Total number of blocks required = 86 + (86 x 5/100) = 86 + 4 = 90

Note that if there are no openings in the wall, skip step 4.

Different Types of Walls

There are various types of walls.

1. Load Bearing Wall

The wall is designed to carry on imposed the vertical load addition with its own weight together for any load known as the load-bearing wall.

load bearing wall

2. Partition Wall

partition wall

The partition wall is an interior non-load bearing wall. The height of the partition wall is one storey or part of one story. The use of the partition wall is to divide larger space into smaller spaces.

3. Panel Wall

panel wall

This is an exterior non-load-bearing wall framed construction. This is totally supported at each storey but subjected to lateral loads.

4. Cavity Wall

cavity wall

The wall has two leaves and each leaf is built of masonry units and separated by a cavity and tied together with metal ties or bonding units to ensure that two leaves act as one structural unit. There is space between the leaves in left as a continuous cavity or filled with non-load bearing insulating and waterproofing material.

5. Faced Wall

faced wall

This is the wall facing and backing of two different materials are bonded together for ensuring common action under load.

6. Veneered Wall

veneered wall

This is the wall where facing is attached to the backing but it is not bonded as resulted in a common action under load.

Defects of Brick Masonry and How to Solve it

The common defects of brick masonry are described below.


The sulphate salt is present in the brickwork and it reacts with alumina content of cement and hydraulic lime in lime mortar and it causes a noticeable increase in the volume of the mortar. The result of this is the chipping and spalling of the bricks and form cracks in joints and rendering.

This defect occurs in where brickwork is exposed to boundary walls, parapets, etc. or it is in contact with the moisture like manholes, retaining walls, etc.

This problem is solved by using suitable construction and choosing materials that stop the moisture to enter in the brick work.

Crystallization of Salts in Bricks

The defects occur in the masonry made from bricks having excessive soluble salts. When the brick comes in contact with the water the soluble salts are dissolved and it appears in the form crystals on the brick surface. This is also called efflorescence.

This defect causes the disfigured the brickwork and makes look ugly of the brick. The efflorescence is solved by brushing and washing of surface repeatedly.

Corrosion of Iron or Steel

The iron and steel used in brickwork get corroded in the presence of dampness. With corrosion the metal expands in volume and also it can crack the brickwork.

The problem can be solved by encasing the reinforcement or iron in dense cement mortar and provides a cover of 15 to 25 mm around the embedded of steel.

Shrinkage on Drying

The brickwork is swelling with water absorption and shrinks when the water evaporates. The cracks are formed in the masonry joints when it shrinks. If there is a lean mortar is used the cracks are distributed over a large number of joints and if there is a rich mortar there are few cracks but they are wider. These cracks do not affect the structural strength of brickwork and it is easily improved.

All these problems can be solved with excellent quality bricks and protect it from the moisture.

The Strength of the Brick Masonry

brick masonry

The strength of the brick masonry is highly dependent on the strength of the bricks used in construction of a structure. Also, the strength of brick is depending on the soil used for making bricks, method, process, and burning of the bricks. As the nature of the soil is different in various regions the average strength of the bricks is also different in various regions.

Also, the permissible compressive stress of brick masonry depends upon several factors like

1. Types of Bricks (1 st Class, 2 nd Class, 3 rd Class)

2. Strength of Bricks

3. Size and Shape of construction

4. Mixing of Mortar

5. Uniformity of Bricks

6. Workmanship

7. Method used for laying bricks

There are various checklists which are applied for increasing strength of brick masonry

1. Visual Check

The brick used for masonry has to be good quality, burnt well with uniform shape, size, and color

2. The metallic sound should be produced by striking two bricks with each other

3. A high-quality brick should not break if it is dropped from one-meter height

4. The good quality brick should not absorb water more than 20% (by its weight) as it submerged in water for 24 hours

Where is the Concrete Beams use?

Concrete beams are manufactured fast which increase the speed of construction. The concrete beams and slabs are made in the same machine with a simple change in cast.

The main advantage of the using hollow-core slabs and prestressed beams are they are high-quality pieces, which saves material and labor. These are high resistance against fire and are easy to transport and assemble.

Where are the concrete slabs and beams are used?

  1. Shopping Centres and Superstores

Herewith the hollow slabs you can construct mezzanine systems to support the vertical loads and distribute the horizontal loads equally. The hollow-core slabs are used for divide walls, enclosing walls, facades, etc.

  1. Auditorium and University Lecture Halls

Along with structural elements, the L-shaped hollow core slabs also be used to construct grandstands.

  1. Car Parks

The hollow cores divide the floors equally and also reduce the number of support sections, so with the fewer columns there is more space to use.

  1. Housing Blocks

Hollow core slabs are used to suspended flooring.

  1. Industrial Warehouse

Here the slabs are used to enclosing walls. Slabs are included for windows and doors.

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आज के टाइम में अच्छी पढाई करने के बावजूद मनचाही नौकरी नहीं मील पाती है। हर कोई अपना खुद का बिज़नेस शुरू करना चाहता है लेकिन बिज़नेस स्टार्ट करने के लिए उनके पास न तो दमदार आईडिया होता है और कई बार तो अच्छा आईडिया होने के बावजूद जमा पूंजी न होने के कारण वे बिज़नेस स्टार्ट नहीं कर पाते।

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यदि आप घर बना रहे है या फिर कोई बड़ी ईमारत, इनको बनाने के लिए ईंटे इस्तेमाल होती है। आप ईंट बनाके बेचने का बिज़नेस शुरू कर सकते है। यह बिज़नेस के जरिए आप फ्लाई ऐश ईंटे, कंक्रीट ब्लॉक और ब्रिक, कंक्रीट पेवर बना के अच्छे दामों पर बेच के मुनाफा कमा सकते है।

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यदि आप बिहार में रहते है तो आपको पता होगा की बिहार में लाल ईंटो पर सम्पूर्ण प्रतिबन्ध है तो आप यहाँ पर फ्लाई ऐश की ईंटे बनाने का बिज़नेस स्टार्ट कर के अच्छा मुनाफा कमा सकते है।

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  4. मशीन से ईंटे कम लगत में बनती है जिसे ज्यादा मुनाफा कमाया जा सकता है।

अभी भारत में मशीन से ईंटे बनाने का बिज़नेस तेजी से बढ़ रहा है।

अगर हम ईंट बनाने की मशीन की क़ीमत की बात करे तो यह रोजाना ईंट बनाने की क्षमता, सेमी -आटोमेटिक या फूली आटोमेटिक, मशीन का प्रकार इत्यादि पर निर्भर है।

अगर हम ईंट बनाने की मशीन की कीमत की बार करे तो फ्लाई ऐश ब्रिक बनाने की मशीन की कीमत 10 लाख से शुरू होती है और कंक्रीट ब्लॉक या ब्रिक मेकिंग मशीन की कीमत 20 लाख से शुरू होती है।

अगर आप भी अपना खुद का बिज़नेस शुरू करना कहते है आज ही Q Green Techon PVT LTD से संपर्क करे।

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