How Concrete Blocks are Made?

The concrete blocks or cement bricks are building material used to build walls in the building. It is also known as a concrete masonry unit (CMU). The concrete blocks are one of the precast concrete products used for construction. Precast is the blocks are formed and hardened before they reach the job site. There are various concrete blocks and have one or more hollow cavities and the side may cast smooth or with design. These blocks are stacked with concrete mortar to make a wall. 

The concrete mortar was first used by Romans in 200 B.C. for binding shaped stone in the building. In the Roman emperor, Caligula in 37-41 A.D. the small blocks of concrete as construction material in modern-day Naples, Italy. The concrete technology develops by Romans is lost with the fall of the Roman empire in the fifth century. An English stonemason Joseph Aspdin develop Portland cement in 1824.

The first hollow concrete block is designed by Harmon S. Palmer in 1890 in the United States and after 10 years of research and experiment, he patented the design in 1900. The block developed by Palmer was 8 x 10 x 30 inches and heavy that the crane is used to move. 

In this time there was an average 10 blocks made by one person and it was cast by hand. With modern-day machines and advanced technology, it is 2,000 blocks per hour. 

Cellular Lightweight Concrete Materials

Which Raw Materials are used?

For making the concrete bricks or blocks the raw material like a mixture of powdered Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel is used. These raw materials together make a light gray block having a fine surface texture and have high compressive strength. The weight of a typical concrete block is 38-43 lb (17.2 to 19.5 kg). There is a higher percentage of sand and a lower percentage of gravel and water for the blocks. This made very dry, stiff mixture and hold shape when removing from the block mold. 

Different types of Raw Material

The cinder block is made with granulated coal or volcanic cinders. This is a dark gray block with a medium to coarse surface texture, having good strength and good sound-deadening property with high thermal insulating than the concrete block. The typical cinder block weighs around 26-33 lb (11.8-15.0 kg). 

If there is granulated coal or volcanic cinders are used instead of sand and gravel with expanded clay, shale or slate the lightweight concrete block is made. The expanded clay, shale, and slate are made with crushing the raw materials and heating up to 2000 o (1093 o ) . The material is bloat or puffs up as there is rapid a generation of gases caused by the combustion of small particles f organic material inside. The light-weight concrete block weighs around 22-28 lb (10.0 to 12.7 kg) use to build a non-loading bearing wall and other partitions. Also, the blast furnace slag and natural volcanic materials like pumice and scoria are used for lightweight blocks. 

Along with basic components, there is concrete mixture is used to make blocks contains a chemical called admixture for altering curing time and it increases the compressive strength or to improve workability. There are pigments added into blocks for uniform color or make the surface of the block uniform. This also protects the surface of a block from chemicals. The glaze on the block surface is made with a thermosetting resinous binder, silica sand, and color pigments. 

Design of the Concrete Blocks

There are standardized shapes and sizes for common concrete blocks for building construction. The common block size is 8 x 8 x 16, as 8 inch high, 8 inches deep, and 16 inches wide. This measurement is including the bead of mortar and block measure is 7.63 in (19.4 cm) high, 7.63 in (19.4 cm) deep, and 15.63 in (38.8 cm) wide.

Many block manufacturers offer variation in block to look it aesthetically look better for particular applications. Like there is one concrete bricks or blocks manufacturer who designs blocks especially for water resistance through exterior walls. There is a split-faced block with rough, stone-like texture on one face of the block then the smooth face. These concrete bricks give a nice look aesthetically. 

Manufacturing Process of Concrete Bricks or Blocks

concrete block

The concrete bricks manufacturing process consists of four steps: mixing, molding, curing, and cubing. There are concrete plants which only make concrete blocks while others produce a variety of precast products like blocks, flat paver, decorative pieces like lawn edging, concrete bricks, etc. With the advancement in technology some concrete brick making plants capable of making 2000 blocks per hour. 


Sand and gravel are stored in silos outside and then transfer through conveyor belt when needed and the cement is stored in silos to make it safe from moisture. When the mixing has started the sand, gravel and cement are coming out from silos via weighing batcher which weighs every material. The dry materials enter into a mixer where they are blended for a few minutes. There are mainly two types of mixers that use one is planetary or pan mixer also known as a shallow pan with a lid. The mixing blades are attached to a vertical rotating shaft with a mixer. Another type is a horizontal drum mixer. This is a coffee turned on the side and has mixing blades attach to the horizontal rotating shaft inside the mixer. 

After the blending of dry materials, the small amount of water is added to the mixer. Now if the plant is located in warm places, the water is the first pass through heater or chiller to maintain the temperature. The mixing chemicals and color pigments added at this time and the concrete is mixed for six to eight minutes. 

2. Molding

After the mixing, the concrete is dump into bucket conveyor and transported to an elevated hopper and the mixing cycle begins after the next load. After that, it is conveyed to other hoppers on the block machine at a controllable speed. Then concrete is downward to flow rate and it pours into molds. In the molds, there is an outer mold box that contains other mold liners. Liners have an outer shape of the block and inner shape of block cavities. There are 5 to 15 blocks are molded at one time depend on machine capacity. 

After the mold filled with concrete, the hydraulic press compresses the concrete into the mold. The compression is complete by air or hydraulic pressure. Many of concrete bricks and concrete blocks machine uses vibration for completion of the process. 

After that, the blocked are pushed out of the mold onto a flat steel pallet. The pallet and blocks are push out of a machine to the chain conveyor. Some of the machines have a feature of rotating brush and it removes the loose material from the top of the blocks. 

3. Curing

Now the pallets of a block are conveyed to an automated stacker or loader and this places them in a curing rack. There are several hundred blocks on each rack. After the rack is full it is rolled onto a set of rails and then moved to a curing kiln. 

This is the room having the capacity to hold several racks of the blocks at a time. There are mainly two types of curing is used. First is low-pressure kiln where blocks are held for one to three hours at room temperature to harden slowly. Then the steam is introduced at 60o F (16o C per hour) to raise the temperature for hardening. The standard weight blocks are cured at 150-165o F (66-74o C) and lightweight blocks are cured at 170-185o F (77-85o C). After reaching the temperature steam is shut off and blocks soaked the hot, moist air for 12-18 hours. The curing process takes about 24 hours. 

The other type of kiln is high-pressure steam kiln it is also known as an autoclave. The temperature in this kiln is 300-375o F (149-191o C) and the pressure is 80-185 psi about 5.5 to 12.8 bar. The blocks are held for 5 to 10 hours. The pressure is vented and blocks release the moisture inside. The autoclave curing process is using more energy and also more expensive but it produces more blocks in less time. 

4. Cubing

Racks of the cured blocks are then rolled out the kiln and the pallets of a block are unstacked and place on a chain conveyor. After that, the blocks are pushed off the steel pallets and the empty pallets are fed back to the block machine for new blocks. 

If there is a split-face block, it first molded as two blocks joined. After the curing completed of double blocks, it passes through a splitter, and the heavy blade strikes between two halves. 

The concrete bricks and blocks are pass through a cuber that aligns each block and stacks them into cube three blocks by six blocks deep by three or four blocks high. Then the cubes are carried outside with a forklift and store for dispatch. 


Manufacturing of the concrete bricks and blocks are required to constant monitoring for producing the blocks for required properties. Raw material weighed electronically before goes to mixer. The water content in sand and gravel measured by ultrasonic sensors and how much water is required to measure automatically. For cold and warm conditions, the water has to pass through a chiller or heater before use. 

After coming out of the machine the height of the block should check with laser beam sensors and in the curing chamber the temperature, pressure, and cycle time should be check properly and record automatically to ensure that the blocks should cure properly for maximum strength. 

Comparison of Embossed Concrete Vs. Paver Blocks for Footpaths

The outer area of your home or your garden leaves impressions with guests, neighbors, and those who pass by your home. Pavers Blocks and embossed concrete can increase the look of this area and make it stand out. Whether you want to improve your garden or totally redesign the look of your pathway or driveway, Pavers are a wonderful option.

The pavers are easy to install and the concrete also seems simple enough, the decision as to which one to choose is not easy. Here we explained some key differences and criteria between the paver blocks and embossed concrete.

Usage of Stamped Concrete and Paver Blocks

Embossed Concrete is a relatively new product and it is not popular.

Whereas Paver blocks are a highly popular product, and that is proven in performance through wide usage over decades.


Embossed Concrete is Not widely available. On the other hand, paver blocks are widely available with a large established body of producers.

Quality Standards

Embossed Concrete had no local quality standards at all.

While on the contrary paver blocks are certified by the Bureau of Indian Standards, since 2006.


Embossed Concrete is available in many designs and colors.

Whereas paver blocks are also available in many colors, finishes, and laying patterns.

Area of Application

Embossed Concrete is a limited application for low traffic areas such as swimming pool decks, pathways, private driveways, etc. It is not suitable for high wear and tears public footpaths.

On the other side, paver blocks are suitable for a large variety of applications, from low traffic pathways to public footpaths, parking lots, and heavy-duty usages such as Smart Cities, ports, and container terminals as well.

Manufacturing Process

Casting and curing at the site lead embossed concrete to poor quality control, that is why uncertainty in quality.

On the other hand, paver blocks are machine-made, robust, finished products, fully cured in a factory, leading it to superior and consistent quality products.

Site Laying

Embossed Concrete requires skilled workmanship whereas paver blocks site laying is done widely, and it requires semi-skilled labor.

Site Curing

Inappropriate curing after laying at the site leads embossed concrete to defects that cannot be rectified.

While on the contrary in paver blocks, footpaths are open for use immediately after laying without holding up for curing and any product or defects can be easily rectified immediately after laying.

Quality Testing

Difficult to check the quality of stamped concrete after it is cast at the site.

whereas paver blocks can be tested easily at any time even after laying, which most advantage of it.


The top color layer thickness in stamped concrete is 2mm which wears off in high-traffic applications, such as public footpaths.

While top color layer thickness in paver blocks is 6-10mm giving a much longer life for high traffic applications.

Underground Utilities

Stamped concrete cannot be accessed after laying without replacing the surface.

While paver blocks can easily access for maintenance, the same blocks are re-used afterward.


Stamped concrete is prone to cracks that cannot repair without replacing the surface.

Paver blocks give high durability and if blocks crack, it can replace individually at any time.

Rain Effect

Embossed concrete has no groundwater percolation which leads to water runoff into drains.

On the other hand, paver blocks’ percolation to base and subbase through joints can increase substantially using Permeable Paving.

Monsoon Laying

Embossed concrete cannot carry out during monsoon surface damage even if it rains within 8-10 hours of stamping.

While paver blocks can lay even during the monsoon as well as any season.

Cost of Embossed Concrete and Paver Blocks

Embossed concrete’s cost is higher for a given area whereas paver block’s cost is lower for a given area.


From the above differences and criteria, it is clear that paver block has better strength as compared to embossed or Stamped concrete. It can be easily specified that paver blocks can use in the park, driveway, pathway, and yards of the domestic as well as a commercial building because the strength is sufficient for the smooth utility of the user.

Fully Automatic Block Making Machine RT6B+

Today we will see RT6B+ machines and what machines are in the automation.

The RT6B+ is a fully automatic block making machine with automatic rack loading and unloading system.

RT6 model is developed as the budget solution to entrepreneurs interested in setting up the factory to manufacture concrete products in medium-size block plants.

The machine is developed to provide a system with indigenous curing solutions.

There is also the option of a rack loading and unloading system which has an automatic storage rack moving conveyor which reduces the delay and labour fatigue.

It has an automatic standard cubing system and blocks with 1.2 by 1.2 meters cubes.

There is An line palletizing of dry side and wet side handling which eliminates the involvement of labour in the plant.

The main feature is contactless product manufacturing and maintain

RT6B+ Process Flow Chart

There are two options Three bin feeder and Single Bin Feeder. After that raw material is transfer to automatic weigh batcher and dry mixes. We also provide a cement weigh batcher. Next water from the water dosing system, dry mixes, and cement sent to either Face Concrete Mixer or Base Concrete mixer. There are two options from Face Concrete Mixer and Base Concrete Mixer to choose from.

After mixing, the conveyor belt took the mixer to the RT6 machine. Here the blocks are press at different vibrant frequencies with the help of variable frequency drives. This high-frequency vibration gives the product better compaction, higher density, and maximum strength.

Now the conveyor belt takes the wet blocks to the rack loading device and stores them at the curing chamber. There is an automatic storage rack moving conveyor which stores wet blocks and sends dry blocks for packaging.

After drying, first, the rack unloading device moves the blocks to block arranging via dry block conveyor. There are two processes done here. First, the blocks picked up and sent to an automatic cuber, and empty pallets are sent back to the machine. The cuber makes the cub of the block and packed it.

Finally, the products are ready.

This is the List of Equipment of RT6B+

The general arrangement of the RT6B+ Type.

Machine installed at the site.

Here is the Production capacity of RT6B+.

Now understand the function of the main parts of the machine.

Automatic Rack Loader & Un-Loader Device

This device loads the rack after the pallet comes out from the block machine and rolled to be lift-off through the green conveyor.

In the same way after curing the racks are first moved out and placed where the unloading device is and it unloads the pallets from rack to loop line.

Both the Rack Loader and Un-Loader are automatic and PLC controlled.

Automatic Rack Moving Device for Wet and Dry Side

It places the rack in the position of loader and unloader. It is driven by chain and powered by SEW geared motors.

Dry Block Conveyor & Pallet Turning Device

The conveyor transports the pallets which are first unloaded by loader and places them in the block separate device and send them to the pallet turning device.

The pallet turning device turns the pallet and utilizes the pallet to use on both sides which gives long life to pallets and avoids bends and high pressure.

Block Separate Device and Block Arranging Device

The device arranges blocks as per even size for cuber clamping for pallet size of 900 x 700.

Automatic Cuber & Slat Conveyor

The cuber makes the cubes of the dry blocks and stacked on a slat conveyor.

It is PLC controlled and driven by a hydraulic system with an accumulator.

Hope this information will help you to choose the best one.

Things You Need to Know Before Using Concrete Block as a Building Material

In this article, we are going to discuss concrete blocks and its advantage and disadvantages, and many more.

Many centuries ago people have changed and adjusted to many structures, like caves, etc.

They begin a journey to create accommodation for themselves.

Paver Blocks

Along with the emergence of culture and civilization, people go about to settle & build their own accommodation.

There are different types of residence according to their culture, taste, environments, and available materials.

Likewise, the structure of a building is just not a house for living.

It has many parts which give the building its safety & identity, character, strength, like its foundation, stair, wall, floor, roof, etc.

The building or home has various sections like bedroom, living room, kitchen, bathroom, washroom, storeroom, etc.

Before the beginning of advanced technology, most construction is built with red bricks, stones, mortar, & wood.

Not that the only materials that contribute to creating a structure but Concrete is also used extensively for build a long-lasting building.

A few main masonry unit types are:

Nowadays Concrete blocks are used widely as normal, red bricks are harmful to the environment.

Definition of Concrete Block

According to ‘David Blockley’, a Concrete Block is a ‘Building Block made totally of concrete.

which is then bonded together with Mortar to form an imposing long-lasting structure.

These types of buildings are made from ‘Hollow’ or ‘Solid’ blocks.

It can be ordinary and lightweight concrete in different standards sizes depends on requirements.

Concrete Blocks

  1. Hollow Concrete Blocks

  2. Solid Concrete Blocks

Hollow Concrete Blocks are very often used than solid blocks because:

Hollow Blocks are not heavy and easy to handle.

They can be grout and reinforced, yet meets difficult structural needs easily.

Solid Concrete Blocks are disappearing nowadays, because of their added mass.

It only calls for special requirements or need, such as Higher Fire Resistance, where being impassable is of paramount signification.

Let us know more.

Solid Concrete Blocks

The overall dimensions of the Solid Concrete Blocks are more than 75% of the total mass fill up with concrete that is known as Concrete Brick.

Hollow Concrete Blocks

It having solid material of around 50-70% of the total volume, calculated from the overall dimensions is designate as a Hollow Concrete Block.

Hollow Concrete Blocks have single or more large holes.

which either passes through the open cavity or just might produce to reduce the mass but the cost of its strength.

Hollow Concrete Blocks

Hollow Concrete Blocks are further sorted into two divisions, viz Grade A & Grade B.

This Grade B category has been occ asionally referring to as Cinder Block, as the Cinder is the composite more often use in its material base.

The Hollow Concrete Blocks are nowadays are available in the market in different shapes & sizes.

As stated by its location or position in the wall.

These are Corner Concrete Blocks, Jamb Concrete blocks, Bullnose Concrete Blocks, Concrete Stretcher Blocks, Partition Concrete Blocks, Frogged Brick Blocks, Lintel Blocks, etc.

Pros of Concrete Blocks

Concrete blocks make a room bigger by expanding the carpet area on account of the decrease wall thickness owing to narrower Concrete Blocks than the standard brick masonry wall.

Concrete Blocks defend the interiors against noise pollution, as it soaks up the sound and it also protects against fire.

It provides superior thermal insulation.

Manufacture along with Concrete Block is faster, stronger, & structural as differentiate to the brick masonry due to the big size of blocks.

Concrete Blocks defend farmers’ land, which otherwise would have been burrow abundantly for manufacturing clay bricks.

As differentiate to conventional masonry building, Individual units can be produced to bigger custom size & shape, ensuring quick turnaround in construction cycle with fewer joints mortar consumption rate decrease, yet increase the gross robustness of the establishment.

Unlike standards bricks, Concrete Blocks’ costume size cuts down on plaster usage.

So it becomes an inexpensive viable choice.

There are a few more advantages & disadvantages of various Blocks, which are as given below.

The benefit of Solid Concrete Blocks

Relatively easier to design Solid Concrete Blocks.

These Blocks are highly resistant to utmost weather conditions, like storms, high winds, and floods, etc.

The benefit of Hollow Concrete Blocks

For reinforcement, Hollow Concrete Blocks does not need extra formwork or any special building machinery.

Fresher or semi-skilled labor can also easily do it finely.

Cons of Concrete Blocks

If the essential raw materials are not willingly convenient then this becomes a costly proposition product.

Labour should be experienced & skilled for the fast & stable production of Concrete Blocks.

Cons of Solid Concrete Blocks

It is difficult to make concealed wiring, plumbing in any structure.

Cons of Hollow Concrete Blocks

Hollow Concrete Blocks are risky during earthquakes if Without an internal reinforcement structure built.

Concrete Blocks Uses

These are perfect for extensive housing and different civil engineering projects.

Concrete Blocks applications:

Concrete Blocks for Building Walls

For fast and easy installation, partition walls advantage extremely by adopting utilization of Concrete Blocks.

Steel reinforcement gives extra strength to the construction.

Solid Concrete Blocks are right for Fireplaces & built of Chimney, yet they equally shine at Non-load Bearing & Garden Walls.

Hollow Concrete Blocks are extensively used for outdoor & indoor Load-bearing Walls, Boundary Walls, Panel Walls, Partition Walls, etc.

Used for the Formation of Material Bin

From different climatic conditions, Concrete Blocks can defend the stored materials.

No wonder, it remains engineers’ decision for the formation of Material Bins.

It helps in keeping the materials away from one another, that is why manufacturing companies choose to employ this.

They utilize these Concrete Blocks to reserve material for the long-term – like rock, aggregate, etc.

Concrete Blocks Utilized in Landscape Projects

Concrete Blocks also use in various applications.

For example, in Flower Bed, Outdoor Bar, Outdoor Seating, Decorative Screen, Patio designs & many Outdoor Furniture.

Concrete Blocks Properties

The different properties of Concrete Blocks are:

  1.   Dimensions

Dimension is the size of Blocks in the matter of Length, Width & Height.

Concrete Blocks are mention by their nominal dimensions.

‘nominal’ is dimensions that consist of the thickness of mortar joints.

Actual dimensions (Length and Height only) have to be 10 mm short of the formal dimensions.

For example, a 400 mm X 200 mm X 200 mm Block has actual Length, Width, and Height measures of 390 mm, 200 mm, and 190mm respectively.

As per the Indian Standard Code 2185, The formal dimensions of Concrete Block are:

Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm

Width: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 mm

Height: 100 or 200 mm

Other than the above referred Concrete Block sizes, they tend to differ extensively based on the mutual contract between the purchaser and the supplier.

  1. Density

Density is the mass per unit volume of a solidity.

There is a parameter for describing the material and form of a mass in the existence of gravity.

The density of Concrete Blocks is:

Solid Concrete Blocks -1,800 kg/m 3 (Minimum)

Hollow Concrete Blocks

Grade A – 1,500 kg/m 3 (Minimum)

Grade B – 1,100 kg/m 3 & 1,500 kg/m 3

  1. Compressive Strength

Compressive strength is the capability of a material to withstand compression.

The minimum average compressive strength of Concrete Blocks is:

Solid Concrete Blocks– 4.0 and 5.0 N/mm 2

sequentially at 28 days

Hollow Concrete Blocks

Grade A – 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, 8.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 N/mm 2 sequentially at 28 days

Grade B – 3.5 and 5.0 N/mm 2 sequentially at 28 days

  1. Water Absorption

Water Absorption is the capability of the material to absorb and retain water and the water absorption should be less than 10% by mass.

  1. Drying Shrinkage

The drying depreciation of Concrete Blocks should be less than 0.06%.

  1. Moisture Movement

The moisture movement arises because material repeatedly inflates due to the outcome of swelling and shrinkage.

Concrete Blocks’ moisture movement around less than 0.09%.

Raw Materials

The basic materials needed for the manufacture of Concrete Blocks are:


The types of cement used for the construction of Concrete Blocks are Portland Slag Cement, Portland Cement, Portland Pozzolana Cement, etc. It should observe its respective standard codes.


The aggregate of the distinct genres utilize varying degrees of success, and they include cinder, clinker, gravel, crushed stones, etc.

The aggregates are sort lists on the virtue of their weight, texture, or composition of a unit design.

The strength, texture, and price of Concrete Block rely on the attentive grading of the aggregate.

The stratification of the combined aggregate shall conform to the needs of Indian Standard Code 383.


Potable water is the basic necessity in the production process of Concrete Blocks.

Additives or Admixtures

Additives or admixtures may add either as admixtures to the concrete mix or as additives to the cement during its construction process.

Admixtures or additives used in the manufacture of Concrete Masonry Units are:

Water decrease, accelerating, air-entraining, and superplasticizers conforming to Indian Standard Code 9103.

Waterproofing representatives follow Indian Standard Code 2645.

Where no appropriate Indian Standards are available, the additives or admixtures shall be utilize based on ASTM or British Standard.

Making Process of Concrete Blocks

The manufacturing of Concrete Blocks consists of the following basic stages,

Making Process of Concrete Blocks

(I) Proportioning

The quantity of the material has been taking likewise the Indian Standard Code 2185 – or as per the robustness need.

(ii) Mixing

Batching of the ingredients should be done exactly and mixing shall be done in a mixture to gain a homogeneous mix.

It shall go on until there is a uniform circulation of the materials.

(iii) Compacting

The Block should be compact by Vibro compaction and accomplish to the proper size without any broken edges.

(iv) Curing

The Blocks shall cure in a curing water tank or curing yard and should keep repeatedly moist for at least 14 days.

When the Blocks are cure in an immersion tank, the water of the tank should change at least every 4 days.

  (v) Drying:

After curing, the Blocks are dried for 2/3 weeks, and then only, they become fit to use for various intent.

If you do not follow it, diminution cracks are likely to show in walls.

  Production of Concrete Blocks

The fully automatic plants are convenient for the manufacturing of high-strength Concrete Blocks.

These automatic machines produce superior quality Concrete Blocks, but they involve significant capital investment.

The manually operating machines are also obtainable and can even be installe in the project area.

This will dilute the transportation cost of the Concrete Blocks from the place of manufacturing to the place of actual use.


As specified previously, there is a large variation of masonry units from which an architect, owner, or engineer can choose the most suited for a particular circumstance.

As reported by Handbook on Masonry Design and Construction – SP 20 the primary discussion in choosing a particular unit are:

Dimensional Stability, Thermal Properties, Resistance to Rain Penetration, Fire Rating, Availability, Strength Requirement, Durability, Style of Architecture, and of course – Economy in Cost.

Concrete Blocks have been broadly using in buildings throughout the country.

Its properties such as Fire Resistance, Insulation, Durability, Strength & Structural Stability, and Sound Absorption make it acceptable for various types of applications.

Concrete Blocks are suitable in areas where brick or stone of sufficient quality for masonry are not available at a decent cost.

If proper variation of aggregates is available for manufacturing, they utilize masonry units for Blocks.

Which can utilize for load-bearing or even non-load-bearing walls, partitions, and panel walls.

Benefits of Using Paver Blocks

In this article, we discussed various benefits of Using Paver Blocks.

Do you have your front yard of home laid by Paver Blocks?

If not then you probably have seen those colorful paver blocks organized in the finest designs in front of homes, stations, buildings, walkways, etc.

Setting up the paver blocks is nowadays a common process.

The reasons are many, such as providing aesthetic beauty, expanding the value of the house, proffer a driveway, etc.

But have you thought about the advantage of installing paver blocks on the outside of your home?

If you want to know more about it, then keep reading.


As specified, due to its benefits paver blocks are becoming more demanded.

It is one of the most popular and flexible pavements surfacing options.

It has been generally made from numerous materials such as concrete, clay, recycled plastic, etc.


Distinct types of paver blocks are available such as the regular ones and permeable ones.

Another preference of pavers is that they occur in various sizes and shapes which gained by using high-quality paver block moulds.

The permeable ones are those which have slots through which grass grows and productively minimizes surface-water runoff.

Grass paver blocks are samples of permeable block pavers.

Now you must have got an idea about pavers and their genre.

But have you wondered? why do you need paver blocks installed?

Assume, your home needs a walkway or driveway for your vehicle.

You don’t want to risk walking or driving through the grassed area, so what is the best solution?

Installing paver blocks, with this process you can lay the whole area or the specific part you want as the walkway.

There are many benefits to installing paver blocks for your home outdoors, which are explained next.


High Durability

Paver blocks have a lifespan of minimum 20 years, so that, once installed, then replace after a long time and it is highly durable in build.

As the blocks are interlocked with each other, the chances of creating cracks are not mattered.

Owing to their long-lasting quality, paver blocks are a preferred choice for homes and commercial uses.

It is proficient in withstanding a high amount of pressure which makes it appropriate for use in airports and docks.


If you are bothered about the safety of your ecosystem or environments, interlocked paver blocks are an alternative for protecting the environment along with getting your own driveway.

By using grass paver blocks, staves off standing water and effectively decrease water run-off by absorbing the water and promoting groundwater recharging and soil ejection.

Easy to Set Up & Repair

Paver Blocks are easy to install which is another cause for using them.

They don’t need to use heavy machinery or multiple tools.

Within 3-4 days the whole installation process is accomplished and right after completion, the place can be used for walking or driving your car through it.

Even the repairing process is easy.

Assume, if one of the blocks is broken or stained from vigorous chemicals like oil, petrol, or diesel, only the specific block can be easily changed without affecting the other blocks.

Manufacturing Cost

Commonly, the paver blocks are manufactured in mass production that is why it has the fewer prices and in fact, makes them cost economical.

Concrete paver blocks are inexpensive than clay pavers or the ones made from natural stones and also installing pavers are for a lifetime.

Manufacturing Cost

Having a good-quality walkway can make your house more visually attractive.

The right kind of surfacing material can complement your property, whether it’s having a patio in your back garden or other types of structure.

One of the finest materials is block paving, made from concrete and clay.

The blocks can be put down in organized patterns and shaped to individual taste.

There are many benefits to block paving.


The versatility of block paving creates it is the highest quality material to use.

Coming in a range of styles and colors, block paving is customizing to your own specifications.

Many designs and shapes can form, and more amplify, the appeal of the material.


Owing to its durability, block paving is an enduring material.

Block paving is long-lasting enough to withstand the pressure of an airplane, that is why it’s a familiar material at airports.

You can drive your car over it many times and it won’t endure any difficulties. Also, block paving is highly extremely to most chemicals, oils, salts, and frosts.

Environmentally imperishable

Differentiating from other surfacing materials, block paving is more environmentally sustainable on account of its porous nature.

This means the paving will soak up rainwater and stop it from gathering on your patio or driveway.

The added advantage is that the surface area will have better sewerage.

Low maintenance

Additional benefits of block paving are that they do need very little maintenance. Only you have to do is apply soap and water to keep it clean. Block paving is also durable sufficient to withstand all types of weather.

Visual appeal

With the diversity of styles on offer, block paving is guaranteed to improve the appearance of your home. There’s the alternative to use a simplistic design, or go for something more complicated.


What is the difference between Hollow Concrete Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks?

Which is better for masonry?

The masonry is there since mankind begins and to date, it is very popular. The stones are used in masonry work for years but now the bricks are widely used material in construction. The reason behind bricks used in masonry is they are economical, durable, easy to handle, and to work with. But bricks have some disadvantages. The conventional clay bricks are made from topsoil which minimizes the land for agriculture. In the making of these bricks the carbon dioxide gas is emitted. The clay bricks are not environment friendly. These days the fly ash bricks and hollow concrete blocks gaining popularity for masonry.

This is the comparison between concrete hollow blocks and fly ash bricks to choose right for your masonry.

Hollow Concrete Blocks

The hollow concrete blocks according to Indian Standard – IS 2185 (Part-1) 2005, the hollow blocks have one or more large holes or cavities pass through the block or do not pass through the block (close cavity). The block has solid material between 50 to 75 percent of total volume from overall dimensions.

Fly Ash Bricks

The fly ash bricks are eco-friendly made from fly ash or pulverized fuel ash. These blocks are 100 percent solid and do not have any cavity.

Which Raw Material is Used?

The hollow concrete blocks have cement, aggregates, sand or gravel, and water. Also, the industrial waste like fly ash, bottom ash is added.

The fly ash bricks are made from fly ash or pulverized fuel ash, cement, sand, lime, and gypsum

Where are they Used?

The hollow concrete blocks are used in masonry for Exterior load-bearing walls, Interior load-bearing walls, curtain walls, partition wall, and panel wall, backing to stone, brick and facing, fireproofing, fire-safe walls around elevators and stairwells, piers, retaining walls, column, etc.

As the fly ash bricks provide strength and durability these bricks are used in various types of construction for load-bearing and non-load bearing walls. These bricks are also used for Raising Infrastructures, Factories, Warehous, Power plant, High rise structures, construction of pavements, water tanks, underwater works, canal lining, and irrigation work, etc.

Advantages of Concrete Hollow Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks?

Hollow Concrete Blocks

These blocks have high durability and less weight. So there is less dead load and saves reinforcement steel in RCC

The masonry practice of hollow concrete blocks is easy and faster than other conventional practices.

These blocks are environment friendly as the waste like fly ash or bottom ash is used as raw material.

The blocks have a rough texture so there is excellent bonding between cement mortar and blocks.

Semi-skill labor can also work with hollow concrete blocks.

These hollow blocks are good sound insulators and provide resistance to earthquakes.

Water consumption of concrete blocks is comparatively less than fly ash bricks

The steel reinforcing is possible with hollow concrete blocks

The weight of the block is less and less steel is required as there is less dead load

These hollow concrete blocks can be used in the construction of load-bearing structure up to 6 stories high with steel

Using the steel there is less dead load so the construction has high earthquake resistance

The special hollow concrete blocks can be used as horizontal reinforcements like lintels and horizontal reinforced concrete can build with blocks

Fly Ash Bricks

These bricks are made using the waste from fly ash which is the waste from a thermal power plants and it is hard to dispose of.

These bricks are high fire insulation

The bricks are very strong and sturdy and almost no breakage in transportation

The bricks have the uniform size so the less mortar is required for joints and plaster

Fly ash bricks provide good thermal insulation

There is no different size of fly ash brick requires for lintel, sill, and jamb

What are the disadvantages of Hollow Concrete Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks?

Hollow Concrete Blocks

The blocks are poor heat insulator as have less thermal mass

The price of the blocks is high compared to fly ash bricks for construction. The price is depending on the availability in the market

Concealed wiring is not possible in hollow concrete blocks

There is a different size of blocks required for lintel, sill, and jamb

Fly Ash Bricks

The mechanical strength of fly ash brick is less but it can improve by adding marble waste of mortar

These bricks can manufacture in limited size and modular size is produced only. The large size of brick has higher chances of breakages

The bricks have a low heat-absorbing capacity. This is can be used in a subtropical region or where the climate is warm.

Bricks are heavy in weight than the hollow blocks

The concealed wiring can be done

The steel cannot be used in the fly ash masonry

How to identify Hollow Concrete Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks?

The hollow concrete blocks are grey in color

The fly ash bricks are generally tan to dark grey

Various Properties of the Concrete Hollow Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks

Hollow Concrete Blocks

Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm

Height: 200 or 100 mm

Width: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 mm

Fly Ash Bricks

Standard Modular Size 190 x 90 x 90 mm or 190 x 90 x 40 mm

Standard Non modular size 230 x 110 x 70 or 230 x 110 x 30 mm

Dimensions Tolerance

The hollow concrete blocks have variation in length shall not more than ±5 mm and the height and width of the unit not more than ±3 mm

Fly Ash Bricks

The dimension of the block tested in accordance with IS 12894:2002 with limits of 20 bricks

For modular size

Length 3720 to 3880 mm (3800 ±80 mm)

Width 1760 to 1840 mm (1800 ±40 mm)

Height 1760 to 1840 mm (1800 ±40 mm)


For 90 mm high bricks

760 to 840 mm (800 ±40 mm)

For Non-Modular Size

Length 4520 to 4680 mm (4600 ±80 mm)

Width 2240 to 2160 mm (2200 ±40 mm)

Height 1440 to 1360 mm (1400 ±40 mm)

(For 70 mm high bricks)

640 to 560 mm (600 ± 40 mm)

(For 30 mm high bricks)

Dry Density

The dry density of the hollow concrete block varies from 1100 to 1500 kg/m 3 . This variation is depending on the grade of concrete and the extent of the cavity

Fly Ash Bricks

The fly ash bricks have a dry density that varies between 1700 to 2000 kg/m 3 .


Hollow Concrete Blocks

The weight is depending on the density and size of the block

Fly Ash Bricks

This depends on the density and size of the brick

Compressive Strength

The hollow concrete block has a compressive strength of hollow concrete block ranges from 3.5 to 15 N/mm 2 and depend on the grade of the blocks

Fly Ash Bricks has compressive strength from 3.5 to 35 N/mm 2 and depending upon the class bricks

Water Absorption

The water absorption of a hollow concrete block does not exceed 10 percent of its weight

The water absorption of fly ash brick should not exceed 15 to 20 % of its weight

Termite Resistant

Concrete hollow blocks and fly ash bricks have good termite resistance

Thermal Conductivity

The hollow concrete block has a thermal conductivity of 0.12 to 0.17 W/m K

The thermal conductivity of fly ash brick is 0.3 to 0.4 W/m K

Sound Insulation

Hollow Concrete Blocks

The sound insulation is the capacity to reduce sound transmission by building elements

It is depending upon the thickness of the wall

The blocks have good sound insulation property as it has a dense structure

Fly Ash Bricks

The fly ash bricks have moderate sound insulation property


Mortar Consumption

Hollow Concrete Blocks

The blocks required less mortar compared to fly ash bricks

Fly Ash Bricks

More mortar is required compared to hollow blocks

Breakage and Utilization

The hollow concrete blocks have negligible breakage and it depends on basic quality

The fly ash bricks have negligible breakage and almost utilization is possible


The hollow concrete blocks are costlier than fly ash bricks but the overall masonry cost is low. As it consumes less mortar

The fly ash bricks are cheap but the overall cost is high as it requires more mortar than hollow concrete blocks

What is an Environment Impact of Hollow concrete block and Fly Ash bricks?

Hollow Concrete Blocks

The hollow concrete blocks are environment-friendly building material and also energy-efficient as they have proper insulating properties

Fly Ash Bricks

The fly ash brick is also environmentally friendly. It is the waste of thermal power plant and not easy to dispose

There is a very low amount of carbon dioxide is emitted in manufacturing


You will know about the comparison between Hollow Concrete Blocks and Fly Ash Bricks. Both products are environmentally friendly and the raw material used is industrial waste. This comparison will help you to choose according to your application.

Green Building Principles in Construction

What are the Green Building Principles in Construction?

The term green building is first used in the 70s and 80s when oil prices are rises around the globe. The term comes in various ways and helps us to understand what is energy efficiency, conservation, and appropriate use of natural resources.

Currently, the green building concept is very growing. The sustainable building technique saves a lot of time and money. The owner and builder both should understand green building technology.

These are the principles of eco-friendly construction.


Size is the most deciding factor of any sustainable structure. Your house must fulfill your needs neither less nor more. According to research, simple shapes are the best way to choose. As every building loses a certain amount of energy due to the ratio of exterior surface which is proportional to the volume. Simply, the more the simple shape of the building, the lesser transmit heat into the surroundings.


It is a parameter to determine whether the building is green or not. The building or house which needs to demolish within few years is not sustainable. And the building that loses of groundwater or require extra resources is not eco-friendly.

How to measure the longevity of the House?

The easy way to measure is moisture control of the building. Water can damage the building quickly. Water damages the building more in many ways like peeling of paint, rotting, and mold. It has been found that the tightly built houses don’t dry quickly if the roof or wall gets wet which is suitable for mold to grow.

The climate of the location also plays a vital role in longevity. The vapor barrier helps in the colder atmosphere as it helps to prevent the formation of cavities. So, architects have to design according to factors that reduce the life of the building.

Energy Efficiency of Building

The idea behind the green building is to use energy efficiently. Insulation is very important to achieve high energy efficiency. The air leakage in the building minimizes energy efficiency. The design should be perfect as there are no gaps for air penetration.

It is found that the contractor only looks at small places where insulation is not sufficient like wires and pipes. But it is also important to check at larger places. The air gaps can occur at any place like behind showers, bathtubs, soffits, etc. These places should be closed properly by barrier materials like plywood, drywall, etc.

Minimize the Waste

The purpose of sustainability is to reduce the generation of waste material. This reduction improves the quality of construction. There are various ways to do this. For example, coordinate your plumber and house framer, which saves a lot of material.

Using recycling material is also helps to reduce wastage. The cardboard and metal can be scraps and recycled.

Indoor Air Quality

The eco-friendly house has proper ventilation and natural lighting. You can find the ventilation rate of your house by contacting an HVAC contractor. Think about indoor air pollutants. They are volatile organic compounds of paints, vehicles, carbon monoxide from improper IC engine vehicles, formaldehyde from carpets, and also from particle boards. It is also an enormous amount of moisture.

Use the Green Products

To use the material that has a harmful impact on the environment is equivalent to use a green products in the building. For example, bamboo is good option for wooden flooring as it has less impact on the environment. Materials like fly ash, concrete made from coal-burning, etc. are used instead of Portland cement.

Water Conservation

Sufficient water resource is require for any building. The groundwater level decides that the structure will build or not at that location. If the groundwater is not distributed properly, has a direct impact on the environment. For that, innovative water management requires for better future.

Non-Conventional Curing Methods in Concrete Construction

Cement is the main ingredient of the concrete which binds all the ingredients in the concrete. It reacts with water and binds all the ingredients. When cement mix with the water, it generates heat which is known as the heat of hydration. It is because of the high quantity of Alite and tri–Calcium Aluminate in Cement. This is also affected by water contain, fineness, and curing temperature. The produced heat does not affect the hardening of concrete. After initial hardening, the hydration affects concrete and if heat is not regulated, it will reduce the strength of the concrete. Water is most important for concrete to control the hydration in the hardening process. Curing is water provided for hydration.

There are various conventional and non-conventional curing methods used to cure the concrete. The non-conventional methods are not very popular as they required a special atmosphere and are relatively expensive. This is the information about non-conventional curing methods.

Non-Conventional Curing Methods

1. Curing by Immersion Method

This is the most acceptable and one of the best water curing methods. The concrete product is poured in the curing tank. This fulfills the moisture requirement of the product. This is used for pre-cast concrete tiles, pavers, etc. are placed in the curing tank for a certain time period.

Sometimes this method is not applicable when the concrete is a test specimen or is in small pre-cast units. There are more labors required for handling.

2. Electrical Curing

In Electrical Curing, the alternating current is passed through concrete between two electrodes. These electrodes are buried or on the surface of the concrete. Proper care is required so the moisture does not evaporate from the concrete and make it dry.

This casting process is performed during work hours and accelerated curing takes place after working hours.

Electric curing is widely used in cold climate regions. This is not an economic option to use. There are skilled workers and continuous monitoring is required.

3. Infra-red Radiation Concrete Curing

The Infrared radiation increases the temperature of concrete so it can get immediate strength. This method is widely used for curing hollow concrete products like hollow concrete blocks. The normal operating temperature is maintained at about 90 o C.

The strength can be gained in a short time compared to steam curing. Initial high temperature has not decreased the strength like steam curing at normal pressure.

Infrared radiation is cold regions like Russia.


These non-conventional techniques are only used in special cases as they require special attention and care. The concrete construction does not get the required strength if the curing is done properly. The improper or inadequate curing gives lower strength to concrete and decreases the performance. Ensure the proper curing of the concrete for sufficient time.

Hollow Concrete Blocks – All About It

House is a basic need of a person. It is one of the three basic requirements of food and cloth. In the early times, the house is made with stone and mud. Then people use burnt clay brick to construct a structure. Now with the technological advancement and need for a cheaper and fast technique for the construction, the concrete blocks are used.

The concrete blocks are divided into types, solid concrete block, and hollow concrete block. In this article, we will discuss hollow concrete blocks, its advantage and disadvantage, properties, and types.

Start with what is concrete blocks?

The concrete blocks are the rectangular concrete blocks available in solid or hollow. These concrete blocks come in modular sizes and it is different in various countries.

  1. Solid Concrete Blocks
  2. Hollow Concrete Blocks

Start with Solid Concrete Blocks

The solid concrete blocks are made from aggregate, Portland cement, and sand. The blocks have solid material not less than 75 percent of total weight calculated from overall dimensions. These blocks are heavy in weight and provide excellent stability to the structure and used for large masonry work. It is used in load-bearing and non-load bearing walls. It is available in various sizes compared to other conventional bricks.

Hollow Concrete Blocks

It is the standard size rectangular hollow blocks made of cast concrete having a high or low density. Portland cement and aggregate, fine gravel, and sand are used as raw material in high density. Industrial waste like fly ash or bottom ash used as a raw material in low-density blocks. It is also known as cinder blocks/breeze blocks in various places.

As per the Indian Standard – IS 2185 (Part-1) 2005 the hollow concrete blocks have one or more large holes or cavities which are a pass-through block or not pass through the block. These blocks have solid material between 50 to 75 percent of the total volume of the block. The holes or cavities reduces the total cross-sectional area of the block.

The hollow blocks are widely used in masonry as it reduces the construction time and require less cement, steel which saves money. The weight of the construction is minimized and enhance the noise and thermal insulation. The electrical conduit, water, and soil pipes are easily accommodated.

Hollow concrete blocks available in which sizes?

The standard hollow concrete blocks are available in full and half size. The full-size blocks are rectangular and have two cores. The half-size blocks are cubical and have one core.

Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm

Height: 200 or 100 mm

Width: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 mm

Types of Concrete Blocks

Hollow Concrete Block (Open and Closed Cavity)

The hollow blocks are divided into below categories

Grade A

This type of block is used in a load-bearing unit and has a minimum block density of 1500 kg/m 3 . These blocks are made with average compressive strengths of 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, 8.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 N/mm 2 at 28 days.

Grade B

The Grade-B type blocks are also used as load-bearing units and have block density between 1100 kg/m 3 and 1500 kg/m 3 . These types of blocks are made for a minimum average compressive strength of 3.5 and 5 N/mm 2 at 28 days.

Solid Concrete Blocks

Grade C

The solid concrete blocks are used as load-bearing units and have a minimum block density of 1800 kg/m 3 . The grade C blocks are made at a minimum average compressive strength of 4 and 5 N/mm 2 .

Physical Properties of the Hollow Concrete Blocks

Moisture Movement: Not more than 0.09 %

Water Absorption: Not more than 10 %

Drying Shrinkage: Not more than 0.06 %

Compressive Strength

For Grade A: 3.5 to 15 N/mm 2

For Grade B: 3.5 to 5 N/mm 2


For Grade A: 1500 kg/m 3

For Grade B: 1100 kg/m 3 to 1500 kg/m 3

Where are the hollow concrete blocks used?

Interior load-bearing walls, Exterior load-bearing walls, curtain walls, fireproofing, partition wall and panel walls, backing from brick, stone, and other facing, piers, column and retaining walls, boundary fences, etc.

What are the advantages of Hollow Concrete Block Masonry?

The hollow concrete block masonry is an easy and fast construction practice compared to others.

These blocks reduce the construction cost as it has a large size which reduces the number of joints

These blocks are durable and have low maintenance

Semi-skill or unskilled labor can work with this masonry practice

The reinforcing of hollow block masonry is possible as it doesn’t require additional formwork or construction machinery

Hollow concrete block masonry is highly durable as it is compacted by high pressure and vibration.

The hollow concrete blocks are lightweight reduces the weight of the structure and requires less percentage of steel of R.C.C.

These blocks have a rough texture which provides excellent bonding between cement mortar and concrete blocks

The voids and cores can fill with steel bars and concrete to achieve seismic resistance

These hollow concrete blocks have excellent insulating properties against sound, heat, and dampness

The blocks have excellent fire resistance

What are the disadvantages of Hollow Concrete Block?

The cost of these blocks is higher than the conventional bricks

The structure built with hollow blocks without any interior reinforcement may damage in earthquake

What are the different types of Hollow Concrete Blocks?

The hollow concrete blocks are divided into various types according to its shape, need, and design

1. Concrete Stretcher Blocks

These hollow blocks are widely used in construction. The blocks are used to join the corner of masonry units. These blocks are placed with their length parallel to the face of the wall.

2. Lintel Blocks

The lintel blocks are called channeled blocks or beam blocks. This is a U-shaped concrete masonry unit. The blocks have a deep groove with a length of the block. After placing the blocks this groove-filled with concrete with reinforcement. These blocks are used at top of the portion of doors and windows as it transfers the load comes from the top.

3. Partition Concrete Blocks

These blocks are ideal for partition wall construction. The hollow part of the blocks is divided into two or three components. The height of the partition block is larger than its breadth.

4. Concrete Pillar Blocks

These blocks are also known as double corner block as both of its corners are plain. The blocks used when two ends of the corner are visible. As of its name, it is widely used in pillars or piers

5. Concrete Corner Blocks

These blocks are used in corners of masonry at the end of the window or at the door opening. One corner of the block is plain and the other is stretcher design. The blocks are arranged that the plane end of the block is at the outside and another end is locked with a stretcher block.

6. Jamb Concrete Blocks

This block is used when the elaborated window opening in the wall. It is connected to the stretcher and corner of the block. These blocks provide space for the casing member of the window.

7. Bullnose Concrete Blocks

These bullnose concrete blocks are similar to corner blocks in structure and function. When the round edges are required these blocks are used.

8. Frogged Brick Blocks

Like the frogged brick these frogged brick blocks have a frog on the top with a header and stretcher. This frog helps the blocks to hold mortar and develop a strong bond with the top lying block.

In conclusion, the concrete blocks are efficient building material than conventional bricks. The blocks increase construction speed and minimize construction costs. The price of the hollow blocks are cheap and it is available in various shape and size.

How the concrete is cured by steam at atmospheric pressure?

Curing of brick or block is accelerating the hydration of cement with control of temperature and moisture movement form and into the concrete. For better quality concrete the mix of concrete and appropriate curing at the beginning of hardening. We can get quality of concrete as required by using concrete ingredients and by different curing methods.

The curing is used to prevent the loss of moisture from the concrete and keep it saturated or make it saturated as possible till the water-filled space in fresh-made cement product fills with.

Now, What is Steam Curing?

In the curing, the product is a cure at water vapor at atmospheric or high pressure. The curing is used when the strength is required in beginning and heat is required for hydration in cold weather. The main reason for using steam in curing of concrete for high early strength. The steam curing is applied at very high pressure or at atmospheric pressure. Here we will discuss concrete steam curing at atmospheric pressure.

What is the difference between Steam Curing at High Pressure and Normal Pressure?

The steam temperature is below 100 degrees Celsius is used for curing the concrete at atmospheric pressure. As the steam will be converted into water, it is also called the hot water curing and this process is done in an open atmosphere. The high-pressure concrete curing is performed in a closed chamber with high pressure about 80 to 170 psi and a high temperature of about 325 o F to 375 o F. The process is called Autoclaving.

Cycle of the Steam Curing

The steam curing has various phases and each phase has a different time frame that has to set.

First is an Initial delay prior to steaming

In this phase, the concrete is held at ambient temperature for about 180 minutes.

Increasing the Temperature

The curing temperature is increased to 60 degree Celsius for about 120 minutes

Hold at Maximum Temperature

The concrete is held at a maximum temperature about 70 degree Celsius for 120 minutes

Lower the Temperature

The concrete is cool down for 120 minutes

Now understand these processes in detail.

Steam curing is used to reduce heat loss and moisture. The tarpaulins are used to make the enclosed space.

Steam is applied for at least 3 hours after to get hardened the concrete. The 3 to 5 hours prior to steaming get the maximum strength.

The process is carried about by precast concrete elements which are specially prestressed concrete sleepers that are used in Indian Railway.

The bridges are built with precast prestressed girders and these girders are steam cured to increase the speed of construction.

It is hard to steam cure concrete at the site is not easy and at some sites, it is made by a steam jacket with tarpaulin or thick polyethylene sheets. The onsite steam curing is not suggested as the required strength is not achieved.

In the curing, the steam temperature is enclosed at 60 degrees Celsius until to reach the required strength. The desired strength will not be achieved if the temperature is raised from 60 to 70 degrees Celsius. The steam curing above 70 degrees Celsius is not suggested as it may damage the product. The internal temperature should not exceed to 70 degree Celsius and if so, there is expansion inside the concrete which reduce the overall strength.

In the steam curing the type of cement used, time and temperature are very important.

The use of excess heat and cooling avoid for preventing the damage of the volume changes. The temperature should not increase or decrease more than 22 to 33 degrees Celsius per hour according to the size and shape of concrete.

The curing temperature inside should maintain until it reaches to require strength. The curing time depends on the concrete and steam temperature.

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