Fly Ash Cellular Lightweight Concrete Properties and Uses

Cellular lightweight concrete is one of the latest emerging technology in making the concrete. The CLC has many benefits over normal conventional concrete.

As we know the Fly Ash is the waste product of thermal power plant which cannot be easily disposed of. This solves the problem of disposal of fly ash and also reduces the cost of construction. The fly ash base CLC is environmentally friendly and it is produced with low energy.

The density of the fly ash based cellular lightweight concrete is lower than the normal concrete but the strength is the same. With this design, we can get a large number of bricks with less concrete.

The manufacturing process does not require any complicated techniques. The manufacturing process is the same as CLC and normal concrete just the foam generating machine is used.

Fly Ash Cellular Lightweight Concrete

This is the version of lightweight concrete which is produced like normal concrete with ambient conditions. It is manufactured by making a slurry of Cement + Sand + Fly Ash (26% – 34% content) + water.

The cellular concrete is a lightweight product having Portland cement, cement-silica, cement-pozzolan, lime-pozzolan, lime-silica pastes or pastes containing blends of these gradients with having a homogeneous void or cell structure and it is obtained by gas-forming chemicals or foaming agents.

The density in cellular lightweight concrete is controlled by gas or foam which is generated by foam generator.

CLC is an air-cured lightweight concrete with fly ash that is their main ingredient which can be produced at large projects sites like traditional concrete, utilizing equipment and molds used for traditional concreting.

It is suitable for places like India for low-rise load-bearing construction and for partitioning work in multi-story blocks.

Fly Ash is a new material for manufacturers. Fly Ash can have more than 25% (26% to 33%) of the total solid material constituents of CLC mixes for different density outputs.

The Fly Ash is the waste product from the thermal power plants for over 25% constituent material. This CLC can be produced for a density range of 400 kg/m 3 to 1800 kg/m 3 with high insulation value and a 28-day cube crushing strength of up to 275 kg/cm 2 .

It is not only the waste material usage but also saves 40% of cement.

The density of the cellular lightweight concrete is 400 kg/m 3 to 1800 kg/m 3 .

The benefit of Cellular Lightweight Concrete is fireproof, termite-proof, thermally insulated, soundproof, environment-friendly.

Cellular Lightweight Concrete – Density Range

The CLC has a wide range of densities like 400 kg/m 3 to 1800 kg/m 3 for different applications.

Lower densities like 400-600 kg/m 3 are suitable for thermal insulation applications. It is the fire, termite, water-proof-ness, termite-resistance, and very low water absorption and it is environmental friendliness. It is also used in laying sound-insulating layers for structural slabs for intermediate floors for high-class hotel buildings for minimizing noise between lower and upper floors. This is also used for filling depressions in bathrooms or other floors etc. It is a very good alternative to Thermocole, glass wool, wood wool, etc.

The medium density of 800-1000kg/m 3 is used for pre-cast blocks for non-load-bearing walling masonry in framed structures. The size of the block is 500x250x200 mm and internal partition blocks are 500x250x100 mm. Also, it can be manufactured in the desired size.

The high-density range is 1200 kg/m 3 (crushing strength 65 kg/cm 2 ) to 1800 kg/m 3 (crushing strength 250 kg/cm 2 ) is grade material used for:

The in-site casting of structural walls and roofs of low-rise individual or group housing schemes.

It is used for reinforced structural cladding or partitioning panels.

For making pre-cast blocks (500x250x200/100 mm) for load-bearing walling masonry for low rise buildings.

Properties of CLC

It has properties like

Low weight

Good fire resistance

Thermal insulation

Thermal expansion is negligible

No Freezing and thawing

Sound absorption

Less tendency to spall.

Use of the CLC

It is used for the construction of partition walls.

Partitions for heat insulation purpose.

Construction of hollow filled floors.

What is Reinforced Concrete? It’s Uses, Benefits & Advantages

The reinforced concrete is a combination of traditional cement concrete with reinforcements (steel bars). The combination is made to utilize the compressive strength of concrete and tensile strength of steel at the same time to provide maximum strength. The meaning of reinforced is the steel reinforces the concrete and makes it stronger construction material.

The reinforced concrete needs to be specially engineered. If the amount of the reinforced is not enough the concrete can be weak or may have a failure. With many advantages, the reinforced concrete has disadvantages too. The reinforced concrete can be molded and shaped which is a limitation for other materials and also give freedom to create innovative designs.

The reinforced concrete is very popular building material having characteristics like strong, easy to work with, adaptable, versatile, durable and affordable. It is mainly used in the construction of foundations of rooftops of the building, highway construction, precast structures, floating structures, hydro-power tunnels, irrigation canals, drain, and all other conceivable structures.

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete


It has very good strength in tension as well as compression which makes it one of the best construction materials.


The concrete constituents are widely available worldwide and also inexpensive. Also, the production cost is very low. It is widely used as the reinforced concrete has less maintenance cost as it has a long-lasting nature of reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete has durability, resilience, required low maintenance and energy-efficient. The concrete structures reduce the operating cost of operational energy consumption.


The concrete can be placed into various shapes if shuttering or formwork configuration to form desired shapes, form, surface, texture and sizes at the construction site. The concrete is in liquid form when it made which is more suitable for many architectural requirements.


The reinforced concrete structures are durable. It is having no effect of rainfall, snow and can last up to 100 years.

As concrete has low permeability it can resist chemicals that dissolve in water like sulfates, chloride and carbon dioxide and all these cause corrosions in concrete without serious deterioration.

These make reinforced concrete more suitable for underwater submerged applications like pipelines, dams, canals, linings and other waterfront structures.

Fire Resistance

The concrete does not catch fire or burn. It can be withstanding heat for 2 to 6 hours for rescue operations in a fire. The reinforced concrete buildings are more fire-resistant than other construction materials like steel and wood. The reinforced concrete is suitable for fireproof steel and high-temperature applications.


The steel provides ductility to the reinforced concrete structures. The ductility in concrete shows the distress in cracking and deflection if the reinforced concrete having the overloading. This enables the engineers to consider engineers to save it from concrete damages.

Seismic Resistance

It is properly designed for reinforced concrete structures that are resistant to earthquakes.

Ease of Construction

As compared with the steel used in the structure, reinforced concrete requires less skilled labor for the erection of the structure.

Ability to consume and Recycle Waste

There are several industrial wastes and by-products like fly ash, slag known as GGBFS or ground granulated blast-furnaces slag, waste glass and like the ground, tires can be recycled as a substitute for cement or aggregate or supplementary materials. The concrete production reduces environmental impacts due to industrial waste and also improves the characteristics of concrete and consequently, the quality of the structure is not compromised.

The concrete can be recycled as aggregate for the use as sub-base material in roadbeds and parking lots, gabion walls as riprap to protect shorelines or in other applications or granular material with reducing the amount of material which is landfilled and need for virgin materials in new construction.

One of the main advantages of concrete is its ability to use different application methods. Concrete is also hand-applied, poured, pumped, sprayed, grouted and it is also used for application for shotcrete and tunnels.

Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete

  • The Reinforced concrete structures are heavier than others like steel, wood and glass structures.
  • The usual concrete building needs massive formwork, centering, shuttering to be fixed which requires lots of site space and labor work.
  • Concrete requires time to attain its full strength. So, it is not used immediately after construction. The steel structures are ready to use.
  • The main process of using reinforced concrete are mixing, casting and curing. Which all are affects the final strength.
  • The price of the forms used for casting RC is high compared to other techniques.
  • The shrinkage causes crack development and strength loss.

Applications of Reinforced Concrete

  • Buildings
  • Bridges
  • Flyovers
  • Water Tanks
  • Roads
  • Floating Structures
  • Foundations
  • Marine Structures
  • Pipes and Conduits
  • Precast Works
  • Chimneys and Towers
  • Retaining Walls
  • Bunkers and Silos

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